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IMPATT Active Frequency Multipliers 26-150 GHz AFM series

Photo of BWO tube

  • Up to 25X Multiplication in one step!
  • Superb efficiency
  • High output power
  • Low spurious harmonic content
  • Fast switching


  • Power sources
  • Electronic tuned power sources
  • Millimeter wave frequency synthesizers
  • Spectroscopy/Radiometry
  • Digital Radio


ELVA-1 IAFM series IMPATT Active Frequency Multipliers are very unique devices, which provide outstanding efficiency and output power performance. Available in multiplication factors up to 25X in one device, they are driven by a microwave source to provide outputs in the frequency range of 20 to 150 GHz. They will accept very high input power without damage. Several IAFM models use the same microwave driver. For example, the picture above shows a single microwave driver (0.5W, 7.2775 GHz) which is used with three different multipliers: IAFM-28 (5th harmonic, 36.3875 GHz), IAFM-15 (8th harmonic, 58.2200 GHz) and IAFM-10 (13th harmonic, 94.6075 GHz). The phase and amplitude stability of the output signal are determined by the quality of the driver source. Using a state-of-the-art, synthesized microwave source, it is possible to achieve 1Hz resolution at 150 GHz. These frequency multipliers are designed in a modular format, and include the multiplier, a band-pass filter and an isolator. A built-in current stabilizer ensures reliable, trouble-free operation. The band-pass filter rejects driver sideband noise by approximately -50 dB. This allows the IAFM to be used as a low noise solid state LO, if the intermediate frequency is higher than the frequency of rejection. The unit's input is a coaxial connector, and the output is a waveguide flange.




*Values shown are for the middle of the frequency band.

Common specifications

Our IAFM models produce no more additional noise than passive multipliers. In fact, our multiplied output noise can be predicted using the same formula: Noise of driver source +20Lg(N) dB/Hz.

For example, if a 7 GHz driver source produces a noise level of -120dB/Hz at 10 kHz offset from the carrier, the 20X IAFM multiplier it drives will produce a noise level at the 140 GHz output of -120dB/Hz+20Lg(20), or -94 dB/Hz, at 10 kHz offset. ...ELVA-1's IAFM multipliers are designed for high reliability and excellent performance under harsh operating conditions. Operating temperature range is specified at -50 to +70 C, and MTBF is approximately 50,000 hours. These units may be obtained with built-in fast output power switching, with an on-off switching time of 1 ns. The following options and IAFM-based subsystems are also available: Complete, very stable solid-state millimeter wave source, consisting of the following elements:

  1. DRO-stabilized transistor oscillator, 6-8 GHz, 10 mW output, 10-6 frequency stability. Higher stability can be provided upon request.

  2. Solid-state power amplifier, supplying a 6-8 GHz output, at a power level sufficient for normal operation of the IAFM.

  3. IAFM.

Frequency adjustment accuracy of this source is about 5-50 MHz. Adjustment parameters are customized to customer requirements. Millimeter wave sweeper, based on a Varactor Controlled Oscillator (6-8 GHz, 10 mW), instead of the DRO oscillator. Additional elements 2 and 3 from above complete the subsystem. Typical bandwidth is 0.5-1%. Frequency bandwidth could be increased upon request. Since this is limited by the distance between nearest harmonics, it is impossible to achieve a greater output bandwidth than the frequency of the driver source. The real bandwidth would be about 50-80% of the driver frequency. For example, the unit we supplied for the Correlation Reflectometer at JET (Joint European Torus) provided a frequency sweep of 92-96 GHz.

IMPATT Injection-Locked Amplifiers (our IILA series) to increase output power.

Phase or amplitude modulator, based on our fast PIN switch, FPS series. Amplitude regulator, based on our Voltage Controlled Attenuator, VCVA series. AC-DC Power supply for 110 VAC, 60Hz or 220 VAC, 50 Hz.